​​​​​​​​​​Persistent Identifier (PID)

A long-lasting reference to a document, file, web page, or other object (real or abstract).

See also: Digital Object Identifier (DOI)​​

Personal Data or Identifiable Data

Data that alone or in combination with other data may reasonably be expected to identify an individual. 

Policy Transitional View

Transitions in RDM policy along the datalifecycle.

Pluggable Authentication Module (PAM)

A service for handling authentication. PAM services can be integrated into non-web based (native) IT services.​


The ability of an individual or group to seclude themselves, or information about themselves, and thereby express themselves selectively.

See also: Medical Privacy

Private Information

This includes information about behavior that occurs in a context in which an individual can reasonably expect that no observation or recording is taking place, and information that has been provided for specific purposes by an individual and that the individual can reasonably expect will not be made public (for example, a medical record). Private information must be individually identifiable (i.e., the identity of the subject is or may readily be ascertained by the investigator or associated with the information) in order for obtaining the information to constitute research involving human subjects. 


A server that acts as a broker, which is located between the internet and local area network(s). If an user wants to access a server provider, the user is redirected by the proxy to the identity provider for authentication, and after authentication the identity together with attributes will be sent to the service provider for authorization.​

Pseudonymisation or Coding

The act of replacing an identifier with a code for the purpose of avoiding direct identification of the participant.

See also: Anonymisation

Public Domain

The body of knowledge and innovation in relation to which no person or other legal entity can establish or maintain proprietary interests.

Public Engagement

An inclusive act ranging from the active involvement of a population or subpopulation in the development, management or governance of a project, to the provision of information and raising awareness of a project.